This post will describe how to combine multiple images with different color schemes to get a final product that you could call by one of these names:

Multi-color images, 2-color images, 3-color images, 4-color images, N-color images

For scikit-image, see e.g.

http://scikit-image.org/docs/dev/auto_examples/color_exposure/plot_tinting_grayscale_images.html

http://scikit-image.org/docs/dev/auto_examples/plot_ihc_color_separation.html

http://colorizer.org/ is a nice page for picking colors & converting between hsv, rgb, etc.

For this tutorial, I’m using free .fits images hosted by the Chandra site:

http://chandra.harvard.edu/photo/openFITS/multiwavelength_data.html

Note that all the images for a given object on that site are already reprojected to the same WCS and pixel grid. For making your own N-color images with your own data though, in general you will have to first reproject all your images to one common WCS/pixel grid. See my tutorial on reprojection for some discussion of how to do this.

from matplotlib import pyplot as plt import numpy as np import astropy.io.fits as pyfits from skimage import color

The standard multi-color image is called an RGB or 3-color image. To make one in python, you simply stack three (grayscale) images into a single array – one each for the Red, Green, and Blue channels. Let’s try making one for Kepler’s Supernova Remnant, using infrared (Spitzer MIPS 24$\mu$m) as the R channel, low-energy Chandra X-rays as the G channel, and high-energy Chandra X-rays as the B channel. [Credit: NASA/ESA/JHU/R.Sankrit & W.Blair ]

### Load in the data kepler_hdr = pyfits.getheader('kepler_ir.fits') #All these images have the same header kepler_ir=pyfits.getdata('kepler_ir.fits') #MIPS 24um #kepler_opt=pyfits.getdata('kepler_opt.fits') #WFPC2 F658N kepler_XhiE=pyfits.getdata('kepler_xray_he.fits') #High-energy X-rays (4-6keV) kepler_XloE=pyfits.getdata('kepler_xray_le.fits') #Low-energy X-rays (0.3-1.4keV) ###Directly making an RGB array to plot (no rescaling) #kepler_simpleRGB=np.transpose([kepler_ir.transpose(),kepler_XloE.transpose(),kepler_XhiE.transpose()]) # --OR-- # #kepler_simpleRGB=np.dstack([kepler_ir,kepler_XloE,kepler_XhiE]) plt.imshow(np.dstack([kepler_ir,kepler_XloE,kepler_XhiE]),origin='lower',interpolation='nearest') plt.show() plt.clf() ###Same, but explicitly setting the slices piece by piece kepler_simpleRGB=np.zeros((kepler_ir.shape[0],kepler_ir.shape[1],3),dtype=float) kepler_simpleRGB[:,:,0]=kepler_ir; kepler_simpleRGB[:,:,1]=kepler_XloE; kepler_simpleRGB[:,:,2]=kepler_XhiE

Standard RGB stacks generally look very nice when each of the R, G, and B frames represent more or less the true red, green, and blue bands in reality – such as the lovely SDSS 3-color images. However, there is no need to force other bands in the spectrum (such as the UV or radio) to adhere to the same pure red, green, and blue false color. Take for instance the example above (also seen in the left panel below) – I personally think this does not look aesthetically pleasing at all. But beyond aesthetics, you may have a ‘scientifically’ valid reason to despair over this color scheme – some time ago, a team I was working with made 3-color images of many galaxies in our survey and they just looked a bit off. In the words of our PI: “Stars aren’t supposed to be green”. To remedy this, we can imbue each channel with a color of our own choosing instead of the standard pure R, G, or B. (That being said, the standard RGB does work stunningly well in many cases.) Here is an example of a simple tweak from the standard RGB to a slightly more pleasing Red-Yellow-Blue color scheme.

Steps to create your own multi-custom-color images:

- Convert each separate image from greyscale (original fits) to its own RGB
- Colorize the RGB grey image by converting to HSV colorspace, changing the hue (from grey to color) & saturation
- Convert each back to RGB color space – at this point the data values should be between 0 and 1
- Add the separate RGB sky images together to create one master RGB
- Re-normalize each of R,G,B to [0,1] scale, but NOT each individual band from 0 to 1 independently…

–> Scale each band from 0 to the FRACTION (max value in that band / max overall value from all 3 bands)

–> This is what what lets the colors remain that color after scaling

http://colorizer.org/ is a good resource to consult for finding colors you might want to use.

## Rescaling image levels

You will probably have to rescale the data in some fashion to draw out the features you want. For example, maybe you need to show changes in relatively faint features AND changes in relatively bright features in a sensible way. Typically scalings are log, sqrt, power-law (gamma), etc. I like Min-Su Shin’s img_scale.py for the job: https://astromsshin.github.io/science/code/Python_fits_image/index.html

skimage, which I use for other tasks, also has rescaling capabilities – a useful one is rescale_intensity()

It may take you some time to play around with levels and scaling functions to determine the best settings to use for each image. I usually just open individual images in DS9 and fiddle with the settings there when I want to do a ‘by eye’ check.

One very simple and important way to tweak your scaling is to set your desired minimum and maximum image values. For plotting a single 2D frame with imshow(), you could achieve this by setting vmin=… and vmax=… Since we will be working with 3D [RGB] frames, we can instead re-scale each image’s data values beforehand using img_scale.<function>() or skimage.rescale_intensity(). To make a simple linear re-scaling between min_value and max_value, you could do either of these:

rescaled_image=img_scale.linear(original_image, scale_min=min_value, scale_max=max_value) # OR rescaled_image=rescale_intensity(original_image, in_range=(min_value,max_value))

Note that img_scale.linear() will rescale the image values linearly between -1 and 1, which is useful or even required for some other operations. One example is if your data values are floats rather than integers – the colorizing process we are about to discuss needs values to be between -1 and 1 if they are floats.

You can also rescale by logarithm, square root, power law, sinh, and asinh easily with img_scale.log(), img_scale.sqrt(), img_scale.power(), img_scale.sinh(), and img_scale.asinh(). Here is a simple visual of how square root scaling can be used to draw out the fainter features a little more, without even resorting to tweaking the min/max values.

from matplotlib import pyplot as plt import numpy as np import astropy.io.fits as pyfits import img_scale import pywcsgrid2 from mpl_toolkits.axes_grid1 import ImageGrid, axes_grid kepler_ir=pyfits.getdata('kepler_ir.fits') data_sqrt_scale=img_scale.sqrt(kepler_ir, scale_min=0., scale_max=kepler_ir.max()) plt.imshow(data_sqrt_scale,origin='lower',interpolation='nearest',cmap='gist_heat') plt.show() plt.clf() fig1=plt.figure(1) grid_helper=pywcsgrid2.GridHelper(wcs=makesimpleheader(kepler_hdr)) g = ImageGrid(fig1, 111,nrows_ncols=(1,2),direction="row",axes_pad=0.02, add_all=True,label_mode="1",share_all=True,cbar_location="top", cbar_mode="each",cbar_size="4%",cbar_pad=0.02, axes_class=(pywcsgrid2.Axes,dict(grid_helper=grid_helper))) for i,dat,label in zip(range(2),[kepler_ir,data_sqrt_scale],['Original','SQRT Scale']): ax=g[i]; ax.set_ticklabel_type("hms", "dms"); ax.set_xlabel(''); ax.set_ylabel(''); ax.axis[:].major_ticklabels.set_fontsize(8) ax.xaxis.set_tick_params(color='0.8'); ax.yaxis.set_tick_params(color='0.8') label=ax.text(0.05,0.95,label,ha='left',va='top',color='0.8', transform=ax.transAxes,size=10,) im=ax.imshow(dat,origin='lower',interpolation='nearest',cmap='gist_heat') cbar=ax.cax.colorbar(im) cbar.set_label_text('Some Units',color='k',size=9); cbar.ax.tick_params(labelsize=7) plt.savefig('kepler_rescale_sqrt.png',bbox_inches='tight') #plt.show() plt.clf(); plt.close()

One very common rescaling is by percentiles: for example, 0.1%-99.9%, 5%-95%, etc. This means that if you were to make an ordered list of pixel values from lowest to highest, the min value on new brightness scale would be the one that is 0.1% up the list while the max value would be the one 99.9% up the list (or 5% and 95% or whatever pair you use). An easy way to accomplish this is to compute it using numpy.percentile(). Note that if your image has a lot of pixels set to 0.0, such as in blanked outer edges, you will want to get percentiles after calling numpy.unique() on the image because np.percentile([0,0,0,0,0,1,2,3,4,5],20) is still 0 instead of 1. You could do this:

min_value,max_value=np.percentile(original_image,(0.1,99.9))

Then you could run the rescale command of your choice like above.

Once you have rescaled your images to your satisfaction, you can check how well they mix by combining them into one RGB array. Here is a snippet of code that rescales the kepler images in various (arbitrary) ways, then combines them and plots the resulting RGB image.

* Give the Kepler IR image square scaling, using data values from 0 to its global maximum

* Give the low-energy X-ray image linear scaling from the 0.5% level to its global max

* Give the high-energy X-ray image square root scaling from the 4.0-99.5 percentile range

###Rescaling import img_scale im1=img_scale.squared(kepler_ir, scale_min=0., scale_max=kepler_ir.max()) im2=img_scale.linear(kepler_XloE, scale_min=np.percentile(np.unique(kepler_XloE),0.5), scale_max=kepler_XloE.max()) im3=img_scale.sqrt(kepler_XhiE, scale_min=np.percentile(np.unique(kepler_XhiE),4.), scale_max=np.percentile(np.unique(kepler_XhiE),99.5)) kepler_simpleRGB=np.zeros((kepler_ir.shape[0],kepler_ir.shape[1],3),dtype=float) kepler_simpleRGB[:,:,0],kepler_simpleRGB[:,:,1],kepler_simpleRGB[:,:,2]=im1,im2,im3 ax1=plt.subplot(121); ax1.set_title('Unscaled') plt.imshow(np.dstack([kepler_ir,kepler_XloE,kepler_XhiE]),origin='lower',interpolation='nearest') ax2=plt.subplot(122); ax2.set_title('Example (Arbitrary) Re-Scaling') plt.imshow(kepler_simpleRGB,origin='lower',interpolation='nearest') for ax in [ax1,ax2]: ax.set_xticklabels(''); ax.set_yticklabels(''); plt.show() plt.clf()

## Colorizing grayscale images

I use the skimage package to do the heavy-lifting here. Specifically:

from skimage import color from skimage.exposure import rescale_intensity, equalize_adapthist, adjust_gamma,adjust_log,adjust_sigmoid

Once again, see the pages here and here for some examples of using skimage with images.

We can now add a ‘tint’ or imbue a grayscale image with a certain color. We’ll do this by converting a single grayscale image into its RGB components, then rescaling levels if necessary, and ‘colorizing’ those RGB channels. I will use HSV colorspace to do the actual colorizing. I’ve chosen ‘brick’, ‘dandelion’, and ‘steel’ as my three colors to use. Once again, Kepler’s SNR is the example.

#A little function to imbue or tint grayscale images def colorize(image, hue, saturation=1,v=1): ### Add color of the given hue to an RGB greyscale image. hsv = color.rgb2hsv(image) hsv[:, :, 2] *= v hsv[:, :, 1] = saturation hsv[:, :, 0] = hue return color.hsv2rgb(hsv) ## brick=rgb(204,20,20)=hsv(0,.9,.8) ## dandelion=rgb(230,220,100)=hsv(60/360,.4,1.) ## steel=rgb(86,122,255)=hsv(227./360,.66,1.) kepler_ir_greyRGB=color.gray2rgb(kepler_ir) kepler_XloE_greyRGB=color.gray2rgb(kepler_XloE) kepler_XhiE_greyRGB=color.gray2rgb(kepler_XhiE) kepler_opt_sqrt=img_scale.sqrt(kepler_opt, scale_min=0., scale_max=100*np.sqrt(kepler_opt.max())) kepler_opt_greyRGB=color.gray2rgb(kepler_opt_sqrt) kepler_ir_brick=colorize(kepler_ir_greyRGB,hue=0.,saturation=0.9,v=1.) kepler_XloE_dandelion=colorize(kepler_XloE_greyRGB,hue=60./360,saturation=0.47,v=1.) kepler_XhiE_steel=colorize(kepler_XhiE_greyRGB,hue=227./360,saturation=0.66,v=1.) ### Comparing the infrared image in original grayscale vs colorized 'brick' red plt.subplot(121); plt.imshow(kepler_ir_greyRGB,origin='lower',interpolation='nearest'); plt.title('IR - Grayscale') plt.subplot(122); plt.imshow(kepler_ir_brick,origin='lower',interpolation='nearest'); plt.title('IR - Colorized to "Brick"') plt.show(); plt.clf()

### Display all three colorized images separately plt.subplot(131); plt.imshow(kepler_ir_brick,origin='lower',interpolation='nearest'); plt.title('IR - "Brick"') plt.subplot(132); plt.imshow(kepler_XloE_dandelion,origin='lower',interpolation='nearest'); plt.title('Low X-ray - "Dandelion"') plt.subplot(133); plt.imshow(kepler_XhiE_steel,origin='lower',interpolation='nearest'); plt.title('High X-ray - "Steel"') plt.show() plt.clf()

Now, the final step is to combine them into one single array. Since each colorized frame is an RGB set, for a given pixel we can take the mean of the ‘brick’ R value, the ‘dandelion’ R value, and the ‘steel’ R value to get a final ‘overall’ R value. Ditto for the overall B and G values. Note that you will need to re-scale the brightness levels to the [0,1] scale overall, but NOT each band independently. To get your desired hue to remain in each band – the RELATIVE RGB levels – the peak values should be scaled as [the max. value in that band] / [the max. value from all 3 bands].

### Combine the colorized frames by taking the mean of the R images, mean of G, and mean of B kepler_RYB=np.nanmean([kepler_ir_brick,kepler_XloE_dandelion,kepler_XhiE_steel],axis=0) ### Make a list of the maximum data values in each of the R,G,B frames RYB_maxints=tuple(np.nanmax(kepler_RYB[:,:,i]) for i in [0,1,2]) ### Now re-scale each frame to the overall maximum so that the final RGB set has range [0,1] for i in [0,1,2]: kepler_RYB[:,:,i]=rescale_intensity(kepler_RYB[:,:,i], out_range=(0, kepler_RYB[:,:,i].max()/np.nanmax(RYB_maxints) )); plt.imshow(kepler_RYB,origin='lower',interpolation='nearest') plt.show() plt.clf()

Comparing once again with the simple RGB:

Kepler RYB

from astropy.wcs import WCS fig1 = plt.figure(1) wcs = WCS(kepler_hdr) ax1=fig1.add_subplot(121, projection=wcs) ax1.imshow(np.dstack([kepler_ir,kepler_XloE,kepler_XhiE]),origin='lower',interpolation='nearest') ax1.set_title('Simple RGB') ax2=fig1.add_subplot(122, projection=wcs) ax2.imshow(kepler_RYB,origin='lower',interpolation='nearest') for ax in [ax1,ax2]: rapars = ax.coords[0]; decpars = ax.coords[1] rapars.set_ticks(color='white'); decpars.set_ticks(color='white') rapars.set_ticks(number=6); decpars.set_ticks(number=6); rapars.set_ticklabel(size=8); decpars.set_ticklabel(size=8); rapars.display_minor_ticks(True); decpars.display_minor_ticks(True) rapars.set_major_formatter('hh:mm:ss.s') decpars.set_major_formatter('dd:mm') rapars.set_separator(('$^\mathrm{H}$', "'", '"')) plt.subplots_adjust(wspace=0.2) ax2.set_title('Red-Yellow-Blue') plt.suptitle("Kepler's SNR",y=0.8,size=14) plt.savefig('kepler_RYB.png',dpi=150,bbox_inches='tight') plt.clf()

It’s worth mentioning that one big plus about combining images in this way (instead of in GIMP/Photoshop/etc.) is that you can keep the WCS info for plotting. That is, the coordinate positions of the pixels is retained, so you can have a coordinate grid. Using this method outlined here you should be able to integrate with your favorite reprojection and plotting packages, such as pywcsgrid2, kapteyn, aplpy, standard imshow, etc.

It doesn’t really make sense to have a single ‘multi-color’ colorbar unfortunately, but if you need to include some quantitative information about the flux scales (such as demonstrating log scaling, etc.), you could always just plot three separate colorbars next to each other – one for each hue.

You don’t need to stop at 3 RGB frames – you can combine 2 or 4 (or more, I guess) frames to make N-color images. Just be careful you select hue combinations that allow you to still see the different bands’ emission. I’ve been fond of a teal-purple-orange-green scheme lately.

## Examples

I’ll be using a little convenience function now to rescale by percentiles:

def rescale_image_percentiles(imagein,perclo=2.,perchi=98.): #Rescale an image by percentiles: perclo and perchi plo, phi = np.percentile(imagein, (perclo, perchi)) return rescale_intensity(imagein, in_range=(plo, phi)) #uses skimage.exposure.rescale_intensity

* Here is M51 in 3 optical bands. (Again, freely available from the Chandra site.) I think the standard RGB looks great here, which is not surprising as the optical bands are actually R, G, and B. Here I subdued the colors a little bit, and added in a fourth image of X-ray emission. I colored the X-rays in lime – the splash of color is a good way to draw the reader’s eyes and emphasize certain features.

M51 4-Color Image

import pywcsgrid2 ### M51, red-yellow-blue-lime ### ### ==> For this one, the muted colors don't pop very well, and looks quite drab. Maybe it's because # the different colors largely overlap (i.e., my method is best suited for roughly independent emission) # HOWEVER, this can be made up for by stretching the contrast at the end - 0-99.5 percentile works fine here. # Histogram (adaptive) equalization also works well, may provide some finer/subtler enhancement m51_hdr=pyfits.getheader('m51_optical_R.fits') m51_optR=pyfits.getdata('m51_optical_R.fits') m51_optG=pyfits.getdata('m51_optical_G.fits') m51_optB=pyfits.getdata('m51_optical_B.fits') m51_X=pyfits.getdata('m51_xray.fits') #Scale image between -1 and 1 if data type is float... m51_optR=img_scale.linear(m51_optR); m51_optG=img_scale.linear(m51_optG); m51_optB=img_scale.linear(m51_optB); m51_X=img_scale.linear(m51_X)*.8; #Convert to RGB grayscale m51_optR_greyRGB=color.gray2rgb(m51_optR); m51_optG_greyRGB=color.gray2rgb(m51_optG); m51_optB_greyRGB=color.gray2rgb(m51_optB); m51_X_greyRGB=color.gray2rgb(m51_X); #Colorize the grayscale images m51_optR_r=colorize(m51_optR_greyRGB,hue=1./360,saturation=0.88,v=.75) m51_optG_y=colorize(m51_optG_greyRGB,hue=59./360,saturation=0.55,v=0.9) m51_optB_b=colorize(m51_optB_greyRGB,hue=218./360,saturation=0.6,v=.57) m51_X_l=colorize(m51_X_greyRGB,hue=105./360,saturation=1.0,v=0.88) #Combine the colorized frames and do final rescaling m51_RYBL=img_scale.linear(np.nansum([m51_optR_r,m51_optG_y,m51_optB_b,m51_X_l],axis=0)) RYBL_maxints=tuple(np.nanmax(m51_RYBL[:,:,i]) for i in [0,1,2]) for i in [0,1,2]: m51_RYBL[:,:,i]=rescale_intensity(m51_RYBL[:,:,i], out_range=(0, m51_RYBL[:,:,i].max()/np.max(RYBL_maxints) )); for i in [0,1,2]: m51_RYBL[:,:,i]=img_scale.linear(m51_RYBL[:,:,i], scale_min=np.percentile(m51_RYBL[:,:,i],0.), scale_max=np.percentile(np.unique(m51_RYBL[:,:,i]),95.) ); #Plot ax1=pywcsgrid2.subplot(121,wcs=m51_hdr); ax1.set_title('RGB',color='k',size=10) ax1.imshow(np.dstack([m51_optR,m51_optG,m51_optB]),origin='lower',interpolation='nearest') ax2=pywcsgrid2.subplot(122,wcs=m51_hdr); ax2.set_title('Red-Yellow-Blue-Lime',color='k',size=10) ax2.imshow(m51_RYBL,origin='lower',interpolation='nearest') for ax in [ax1,ax2]: ax.set_xlabel(''); ax.set_ylabel(''); ax.axis[:].major_ticklabels.set_fontsize(8) plt.suptitle('M51 - Adding a fourth image to RGB',y=0.96) plt.savefig('M51_RYBL.png',bbox_inches='tight') #plt.show() plt.clf(); plt.close()

* Here is an example of a standard RGB looking like it needs a little bit of a makeover. This is M101 in the infrared, optical, and UV (and X-rays for a fourth image in right panel). The different bands don’t correspond to true red, green, and blue light in reality, so it’s not surprising that they don’t blend together particularly well. Here I’ve just made a simple change to more reserved red, yellow, and blue hues, with the additional X-ray image in pink – more for blending in rather than standing out like the lime above. This isn’t perfect, but it’s a good improvement.

### M101, red-yellow-blue-pink ### # --> slightly better than M51, but still a bit drab. A teal-orange-purple-yellow # scheme actually looks good though # gamma adjustment with gamma<1.0 (say, 0.5) really brings up the low-vals nicely # log runs the risk of vals going over 1.0 ... # adjust_sigmoid draws out faint features really well, but turns blacks to grey... # Fixed by percentile scaling... from skimage.exposure import rescale_intensity, adjust_gamma, adjust_log, adjust_sigmoid m101_hdr=pyfits.getheader('/home/pjcigan/Desktop/misc/testcode/astro_3color/m101/m101_optical.fits') ## Note that you may need to adjust the header - the original has CRVAL etc. as strings # instead of floats which doesn't play nice with the some plotting functions... m101_ir=pyfits.getdata('m101_ir.fits') m101_opt=pyfits.getdata('m101_optical.fits') m101_uv=pyfits.getdata('m101_uv.fits') m101_x=pyfits.getdata('m101_xray.fits') #Scale image between -1 and 1 if data type is float... m101_ir=img_scale.linear(m101_ir); m101_opt=img_scale.linear(m101_opt); m101_uv=img_scale.linear(m101_uv); m101_x=img_scale.linear(m101_x)*.8; #Convert to RGB grayscale m101_ir_greyRGB=color.gray2rgb(m101_ir); m101_opt_greyRGB=color.gray2rgb(m101_opt); m101_uv_greyRGB=color.gray2rgb(m101_uv); m101_x_greyRGB=color.gray2rgb(m101_x); #Colorize the frames m101_ir_r=colorize(m101_ir_greyRGB,hue=1./360,saturation=0.88,v=0.75) m101_opt_y=colorize(m101_opt_greyRGB,hue=59./360,saturation=0.55,v=0.9) m101_uv_b=colorize(m101_uv_greyRGB,hue=236./360,saturation=1.0,v=0.5) m101_x_p=colorize(m101_x_greyRGB,hue=350./360,saturation=0.,v=1.0) #Combine and do final scaling m101_RYBP=img_scale.linear(np.nansum([m101_ir_r,m101_opt_y,m101_uv_b,m101_x_p],axis=0)) RYBP_maxints=tuple(np.nanmax(m101_RYBP[:,:,i]) for i in [0,1,2]) for i in [0,1,2]: m101_RYBP[:,:,i]=rescale_intensity(m101_RYBP[:,:,i], out_range=(0, m101_RYBP[:,:,i].max()/np.max(RYBP_maxints) )); m101_RYBP_inverse=m101_RYBP.copy() for i in [0,1,2]: m101_RYBP[:,:,i] = adjust_gamma(m101_RYBP[:,:,i], gamma=.5,gain=1) for i in [0,1,2]: m101_RYBP_inverse[:,:,i] = adjust_sigmoid(m101_RYBP_inverse[:,:,i], cutoff=0.001, gain=10, inv=True) m101_RYBP_inverse[:,:,i]=rescale_image_percentiles(m101_RYBP_inverse[:,:,i],perclo=0.,perchi=99) #Plot ax1=pywcsgrid2.subplot(121,wcs=m101_hdr2); ax1.set_title('RGB',color='k',size=10) ax1.imshow(np.dstack([m101_ir,m101_opt,m101_uv]),origin='lower',interpolation='nearest') ax2=pywcsgrid2.subplot(122,wcs=m101_hdr2); ax2.set_title('Red-Yellow-Blue-Pink',color='k',size=10) ax2.imshow(m101_RYBP,origin='lower',interpolation='nearest') for ax in [ax1,ax2]: ax.set_xlabel(''); ax.set_ylabel(''); ax.axis[:].major_ticklabels.set_fontsize(8) plt.suptitle('M101',y=0.82,color='k') plt.savefig('M101_RYBP.png',bbox_inches='tight') #plt.show() plt.clf(); plt.close()

* This is an interesting one. It is often more appropriate to plot ‘reverse’ color scales such that the background is light, and areas with higher data values are represented by darker points. For example, this saves ink when printing physical copies, and it may be easier on the eyes in some digital formats. I don’t think I’ve seen anyone explore this before, but you could also do a multi-reverse-color image. Building on the code from the previous example, here it is plotted with a white background:

M101 Inverse 4-Color Image

### --> Continuing from the previous M101 code... m101_RYBP_inverse=m101_RYBP.copy() for i in [0,1,2]: m101_RYBP_inverse[:,:,i] = adjust_sigmoid(m101_RYBP_inverse[:,:,i], cutoff=0.001, gain=10, inv=True) m101_RYBP_inverse[:,:,i]=rescale_image_percentiles(m101_RYBP_inverse[:,:,i],perclo=0.,perchi=99) #Plotting ax1=pywcsgrid2.subplot(121, wcs=m101_hdr2) ax1.imshow(m101_RGBP,origin='lower',interpolation='nearest') ax1.set_title('Red-Yellow-Blue-Pink',size=10) ax1.xaxis.set_tick_params(color='w'); ax1.yaxis.set_tick_params(color='w'); for spine in ax.spines.values(): spine.set_edgecolor('w'); spine.set_linewidth(0.4); spine.set_visible(True); ax2=pywcsgrid2.subplot(122, wcs=m101_hdr2) ax2.imshow(m101_RGBP_inverse,origin='lower',interpolation='nearest') for ax in [ax1,ax2]: ax.set_ticklabel_type('hms','dms'); ax.set_xlabel(''); ax.set_ylabel(''); ax.axis[:].major_ticklabels.set_fontsize(8) ax2.set_title('Inverse Red-Yellow-Blue-Pink',size=10) plt.suptitle('M101 - Inverse RGB',y=0.84) plt.savefig('M101_RYBP_inverse.png',bbox_inches='tight') plt.clf(); plt.close()